Allulose, also referred to as D-psicose, is a rare sugar which tastes exactly like white sugar, but only has 1/10 of its calories. It’s possible anti-obesity and anti-diabetic properties. In animal studies, in addition, it protected from oxidative stress, inflammation, and fatty liver disease. Keep reading to discover the potential benefits of allulose and whether you should incorporate it into your diet.
What Is Allulose?
Allulose is a rare sugar that occurs in tiny quantities in nature. It belongs to a group of sugars known as monosaccharides, which includes fructose and sugar. But, cellulose only comprises 1/10 of the calories of these 2 sugars. It will, however, maintain a similar flavor and texture.
Industrially, allulose is produced from fructose. It may be purchased as a sweetener to substitute sugar from the diet.
As a result of the low-calorie content, allulose may benefit individuals suffering from obesity, diabetes, and may promote overall weight loss. Furthermore, it might have antioxidant properties and reduce inflammation.
Natural Resources and Types of Supplementation
Allulose occurs in small amounts in wheat and in the Itea plant genus.
Common food sources include brown sugar, dried figs, raisins, and Worcester sauce.
Today, it’s mostly made industrially from fructose by utilizing bacteria and is available in the form of sweetener or a food additive (honey or maple syrup).
Allulose has the same molecular formula as fructose and glucose (C6H12O6), but the placement of chemical groups is slightly different. The rearrangement of chemical groups is enough to alter their physical and chemical properties.
Mechanism of Action
Allulose Is quickly flushed with the pee and cannot penetrate the blood-brain barrier. Consequently, direct action on the central nervous system isn’t possible.
Allulose behaves mainly through the launch of GLP-1 (Glucagon-Like Peptide-1). GLP-1 is made by the large bowel. This hormone circulates in the blood and binds to receptors in the brain, pancreas, intestine, and glands.
Allulose reduces blood glucose by:
- Increasing insulin discharge in reaction to an after-meal glucose spike
- Increasing the efficiency of glucose transport to the cells
- Increasing insulin sensitivity
- Suppressing glucagon release
- Increasing the Use of glucose in the liver
- Directly Cutting down the release of sugar to the bloodstream
- Inhibiting intestinal alpha-glucosidase and delaying sucrose digestion
Allulose decreases the amount of body fat tissue by:
- Increasing the action of three enzymes which break down fats: CPT1 (Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2), CPT2, and beta-oxidase
- Increasing the number of protein involved in energy usage (uncoupling protein 1 or 2 UCP1)
- Blocking the enzymes that produce fatty molecules (fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1)
Allulose decreases the amount of liver fat by:
- Reducing the amount of the enzymes necessary for fat creation (fatty acid synthase and phosphatidate phosphatase)
Allulose promotes satiety by:
- Increasing the launch of GLP-1, which travels throughout the blood to the brain. In the brain, GLP-1 receptors are located in the brainstem, hypothalamus, and parietal cortex. Their activation results in a decrease in appetite.
- GLP-1 also blocks the digestive tract from emptying food out (ileal brake mechanism). This transmits a signal to the brain which results in less hunger.
- Allulose is easily absorbable but has a very low glycemic index. It follows that consuming allulose doesn’t lead to a rise in blood glucose levels.
- Can help control blood sugar levels
- May help reduce weight
- Much like flavor to sugar with Just 1/10 of its calories
- Insufficient evidence for many benefits
- High doses may cause digestive issues
In A 12-week trial on 26 individuals (15 prediabetic and 11 healthy), one intake of 5 g of allulose decreased post-meal glucose spikes in people who have borderline diabetes. The long-term (12 months ) intake of allulose did not cause any side effects.
Another trial on 20 healthy people, single doses of allulose (5 or 7.5 g but not 2.5 gram ) reduced glucose and insulin spikes after a dose of maltodextrin (75 g).
The most recent clinical trial, cellulose (5 or 10 g) decreased blood glucose spikes after the consumption of glucose (75 g) from 24 people with type 2 diabetes.
But this sugar was unsuccessful in a similar trial conducted on 27 healthy people.
In Diabetic and healthy mice, allulose lowered general blood glucose down to normal levels without causing hypoglycemia in healthy animals. Additionally, it relieved the post-meal sugar spike in both healthy and diabetic animals.
Insulin resistance Is a condition in which cells don’t respond to insulin, resulting in high blood glucose levels. The main symptom of this condition is high insulin levels (hyperinsulinemia). In animals with hyperinsulinemia, allulose diminished insulin levels and reduced insulin resistance.
HbA1c, or glycated hemoglobin, is formed from a reaction between hemoglobin A and blood sugar. It’s employed as an indicator of poor blood glucose control.
In Obese rats with type 2 diabetes, cellulose diminished the level of HbA1c by maintaining normal blood sugar levels during ingestion and fasting.
Although The evidence suggests that allulose can help lower blood glucose spikes in people with diabetes or at risk of developing this condition, it is based on very few trials on small populations and some animal research. Larger, more robust clinical trials are needed to confirm these preliminary findings.
2) Weight Loss
At a clinical trial on 121 obese people, allulose significantly reduced body mass index and fat from the stomach and waist.
Another trial on 13 healthy, normal-weight men and women, cellulose promoted fat burning after meals. This suggests it might help keep a healthy weight by boosting energy usage.
In several mouse studies, allulose diminished fatty tissue in both obese and leptin-deficient mice. This effect was mediated by the release of GLP-1. Allulose use also corrected diabetes, obesity, fatty liver disease, and overeating.
High-fat diet-fed mice supplemented with allulose had 50% less fat from the belly area and body.
In Mice, cellulose improved the activity of enzymes responsible for fat breakdown (beta-oxidase, CPT1, CPT2) while decreasing fat production (by blocking fatty acid synthase).
In Mice fed a high-fat diet, cellulose diminished fat absorption and synthesis from the small intestine. Furthermore, it increased the elimination of fats in your system (fecal excretion).
In cell studies, the direct application of allulose prevented fat cells by replicating.
Again, The outcomes are promising but the evidence comes from 2 clinical trials and some research in cells and animals. More clinical trials are required to encourage the use of cellulose as a weight-loss aid.
Animal and Cell Research (Lack of Evidence)
No Clinical evidence supports using cellulose for some of the conditions listed in this section. Below is a list of the existing animal and cell-based research, which ought to guide further investigational efforts. However, the studies shouldn’t be interpreted as encouraging of any health benefit.
Reducing Oxidative Stress and Inflammation
In Rats with irreparable harm, allulose-infused water (2 percent cellulose) given for 14 days prevented the creation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the development of congenital damage. Furthermore, allulose raised the amounts of antioxidant proteins (glutathione peroxidase 1 and 2, and glutaredoxin 1).
Sort 2 diabetes is caused by a failure of beta-cells from the pancreas to respond to glucose levels. In rats with type 2 diabetes, oral allulose reduced the production of inflammatory molecules IL-6 and TNF-alpha. It also improved the production of glutathione (GSH), an antioxidant that plays a protective role in the body also helps alleviate cellular damage.
In rats supplemented with a 5% cellulose alternative for 12 weeks, total Body fat and cholesterol levels had been decreased. Furthermore, cellulose reduced the expression of inflammatory enzymes (fos, mmp3, Fgf21, along with abcd2) and enzymes responsible for fat synthesis.
A mobile model of Parkinson’s disease (6-OHDA treated PC12 cells), allulose protected nerve cells from cell death. Additionally, it increased levels of glutathione.
Fatty Liver Disease
In mice fed high-fat diets, allulose decreased the Quantity of fat buildup in the liver when given for 16 weeks. The sugar reduced the activity of enzymes responsible for fat synthesis (fatty-acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1, and phosphatidate phosphatase) while increasing fat breakdown (beta-oxidation).
In obese mice, allulose decreased the liver triglyceride levels after 5 months of supplementation.
Enhancing Antibiotic Effects
In cells, the antibiotic metronidazole was efficient in stopping the growth of a protozoa that affects cats and cattle (Tritrichomonas foetus) When coupled with cellulose compared to metronidazole alone. This suggests Cellulose may prove useful in relieving antibiotic resistance to metronidazole.
Side Effects & Precautions
Keep In mind that the safety profile of allulose is comparatively unknown, given the absence of well-designed clinical studies. The list of side effects isn’t a certain one, and you need to speak to your physician about other potential side effects based on your health condition and possible drug or nutritional supplements.
In a clinical trial On 30 healthy people, cellulose doses of around 0.4 mg/kg have been well-tolerated and caused no gastrointestinal symptoms. However, severe diarrhea and gastrointestinal distress were reported at 0.4-0.5 mg/kg. Higher doses of up to 1 mg/kg also triggered nausea, stomach pain, headache, and lack of appetite.
Based on this and other studies, the FDA warned that doses over 35 grams every day can cause gastrointestinal distress.
Limitations and Caveats
The main limitation is the lack and small dimensions of clinical trials. Since the majority of the studies were completed on animals, there is insufficient evidence to support all the potential advantages of cellulose until the more clinical study is conducted.
Dosages used in human studies were Lower than those animal studies. Humans were served up to about 0.2 grams of allulose/kg, while animals were given 0.2 to 3.0 grams of cellulose per kilogram of body fat. The observed gains in animal models may be attributed to the increased dose of cellulose.
Dosage & Supplementation
Because allulose isn’t accepted by the FDA for any condition, there’s no official dose. Users and nutritional supplement makers have established unofficial dosages according to trial and error. Discuss with your doctor if allulose might be useful as a complementary approach to your case and which dose you should take.
The FDA recommends doses below 35 G/day to avoid stomach discomfort. It’s possible to use allulose in place of sugar into your daily meals and drink. For many recipes that call for a specific quantity of sugar, you can substitute the same amount of allulose instead.
The Opinions expressed in this section are only those of cellulose users, that may or may not have scientific or medical training. Their testimonials don’t represent the opinions of SelfHacked. SelfHacked doesn’t endorse any specific solution, service, or therapy.
Do not Consider user adventures as medical advice. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your health care provider or other qualified healthcare providers because of something you’ve read on SelfHacked. We know that studying person, real-life experiences can be a very helpful resource, but it is not a replacement for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment from a qualified healthcare provider.
Most Users who incorporated allulose sweetener in their diets to replace sugar as a sweetener. They were generally happy with its low-calorie count and ease to digest and dissolve.
The most common criticism Was its high cost. Other users noted that allulose provides just 70% of the sweetness of sugar-free sugar, which means it requires higher amounts.
Users of allulose honey claimed that it was indistinguishable from ordinary honey and found it a great sugar substitute.